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Recent studies revealed that beginning readers soon begin to utilize information from parafoveal words for subsequent foveal word recognition, that is, they engage in parafoveal preprocessing and exhibit the resultant preview benefit.To illustrate, studies – using the moving window paradigm.18 for the logic of this within-condition baseline).In the present study, we manipulated the salience of the preview of word.These effects are hard to differentiate with respect to the expected pattern of results, but are conceptually different.The foveal load effect is supposed to reflect modulations of the extent of parafoveal preprocessing, whereas the spillover effect reflects the ongoing processing of the previous word whilst the reader’s fixation is already on the next word.They argued that “Henderson and Ferreira’s finding of an interaction may have been related to the interference caused by, and the reprocessing necessitated by, initially processing a nonsense string in the dissimilar preview condition” (p. Indeed, recent studies corroborated this critical assertion by showing that parafoveal masking inflicts processing costs (i.e., interference) for foveal word recognition in adult readers; see later).

In order to distinguish the spillover effect from the effect of foveal load we applied a novel technique, that is, the incremental boundary paradigm. As aforementioned, with the invisible boundary technique one can manipulate the preview of the upcoming word in order to assess the magnitude of the preview benefit.This advantage of the incremental boundary technique is indicated by the finding that the processing times of the target words converged for the valid preview condition and the masked preview condition in case the salience of the preview was low (i.e., when the preview was sufficiently degraded).This convergence of processing times (indexed by first fixation and gaze duration) indicates that the visually degraded previews neither facilitated nor interfered with processing of the target words. 1 shows that the design of the present experiment was FREQUENCY OF WORD).As yet, most evidence on parafoveal preprocessing is based on studies with mature (i.e., adult) readers.Evidence concerning the development of parafoveal preprocessing in beginning readers is comparatively scarce.

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